A kidney transplant in Jaipur involves a surgical procedure wherein a person with malfunctioning kidneys receives a healthy kidney from a donor, whether living or deceased. The kidneys, which resemble beans in shape, are located on either side of the spine just below the ribcage. They are approximately the size of a fist and primarily function by filtering and eliminating waste, minerals, and fluids from the blood, which are then expelled as urine. When the kidneys lose their filtering capacity, it can lead to the buildup of harmful levels of waste and fluids in the body, causing an increase in blood pressure and ultimately resulting in end-stage renal disease, where the kidneys are functioning at just 10% of their normal ability.
Besides removing waste and excess fluids from the body, kidneys also regulate the body’s electrolyte metabolism, including potassium, sodium, and calcium. They produce hormones that help control blood pressure. Although the human body has two kidneys, it can function with just one working kidney.
A kidney transplant in Jaipur, medically known as a renal transplant, is carried out to address kidney failure in individuals. When the kidneys cease to function properly, patients are subjected to dialysis, a mechanical filtration process that replaces the kidney’s functions.
Another treatment option for kidney failure is a transplant of a kidney from a live or deceased donor. The surgeon transfers the donated kidney into the recipient’s body during this procedure. Immunosuppressive medications are then administered to prevent the recipient’s immune system from attacking the new kidney, perceiving it as a foreign object.
A kidney transplant may be the sole option for those whose kidneys have completely stopped working, also known as an end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Patients with ESRD require dialysis to stay alive, but a kidney transplant can remove their reliance on a dialysis machine for the rest of their life. As only one healthy kidney is necessary to replace two failed kidneys, a healthy person can donate one of their kidneys to someone with ESRD.
Individuals with kidney failure, where the kidneys have lost 90% of their functioning capacity, require kidney transplants. Various diseases and conditions can lead to this condition. In India, around 60% of cases of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease are a result of lifestyle-related illnesses such as diabetes and hypertension. The primary causes of kidney failure include:
Type 2 diabetes: It is also known as Diabetes mellitus, is a medical condition where the body is incapable of properly metabolizing glucose, leading to elevated levels of sugar in the blood. Over time, the surplus sugar in the blood vessels can destroy millions of tiny blood-filtering units located inside the kidney, ultimately resulting in kidney failure.
High blood pressure: It is the second most common reason for kidney failure. Persistent high blood pressure can lead to the hardening, narrowing, or weakening of the arteries surrounding the kidneys. This damages the blood vessels’ ability to provide enough blood to the kidney tissues, depriving them of essential oxygen and nutrients and ultimately leading to kidney failure.
Glomerulonephritis: It refers to the inflammation of the kidney’s small filters called glomeruli, which filter wastes, electrolytes, and excess fluid from the blood. Glomerulonephritis can be triggered by several conditions, including diabetes, immune system disorders, bacterial and viral infections, lupus, and vasculitis.
Polycystic kidney disease: It is a genetic disorder that causes clusters of fluid-filled sacs known as cysts to grow in the kidneys, resulting in a decline in the kidney’s ability to filter blood.
Serious abnormalities in the urinary tract: These may be caused by genetic or birth defects, which can eventually result in kidney failure due to a reduction in normal kidney function.
If a suitable match is found from either a life or a cadaveric donor, a kidney transplant can be performed. The procedure is carried out under general anesthesia, and the patient’s blood oxygen level, blood pressure, and heart rate are continuously monitored by a team of surgeons, nurses, and anesthetists during the operation. The actual renal transplant process is as follows:
After the surgery, the patient will need to stay in the hospital for a certain period. During recovery, they will require multiple check-ups, and they may need to take immunosuppressants and antibiotics for the rest of their lives.
For someone with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), receiving a kidney transplant is a potential option. However, there are certain requirements and criteria that must be met to qualify:
The person must be in good health to withstand a significant surgery and lifelong medication regimen.
They must also be willing to adhere to the doctor’s instructions and take medication as prescribed.
If the individual has conditions such as cardiovascular disease, liver disease, cancer, or infections like hepatitis, tuberculosis, or bone infection, they may not be a suitable candidate for kidney transplantation as the new kidney is likely to fail after the transplant.
To increase the likelihood of a successful transplant, the person should not smoke or consume alcohol or drugs.
The doctor will conduct an assessment to determine if the individual is a suitable candidate for a successful kidney transplant. Individuals who are of advanced age, have a mental illness, or struggle with alcohol or drug addiction may not be suitable candidates for a transplant.
Following a kidney transplant, patients need to stay in the hospital for several days to monitor the functioning of the new kidney and ensure that their body is not rejecting it. Even if they feel well enough to leave, patients may have to remain in the hospital for one to two weeks.
The new kidney may start working immediately, or it may take several weeks to begin functioning correctly. Kidneys donated by family members typically start working faster than those donated by unrelated or deceased donors. Patients may experience pain around the incision site as the healing process begins.
After a kidney transplant, patients are prescribed immunosuppressant medication to prevent rejection of the new kidney. It is crucial to strictly adhere to the instructions given for aftercare and medication routine. The doctor will also advise on the level of physical activity that the body can handle while in recovery.
In addition to the patient, the donor’s diet must change after the transplant to maintain a healthy body. The doctor will specify the types of foods to eat or avoid. The recommended diet and nutrition plan may include:
Once the patient has recovered, it is important to make moderate exercise a part of their daily routine to ensure they stay healthy and that the new kidney functions properly. Activities such as walking, jogging, or swimming can be incorporated into their lifestyle after the transplant. However, it is essential to consult with a doctor before starting any exercise post-transplant.
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A kidney transplant in Jaipur is a surgical procedure in which a healthy kidney from a donor is implanted into the body of a recipient whose own kidneys are failing. The transplanted kidney takes over the function of the failed kidneys, allowing the recipient to live a healthier life.
In general, anyone can donate a kidney as long as they are in good health and have no medical conditions that would make the surgery risky. Living donors can be family members, friends, or even strangers who want to donate a kidney to someone in need. Deceased donors can also donate their kidneys, but this typically requires consent from their family members.
The surgery usually takes three to four hours. The length of the surgery can vary depending on the complexity of the transplant and the health of the donor and recipient.
The recovery process can vary depending on the individual and the specifics of the transplant. Generally, recipients will stay in the hospital for several days after the surgery to be monitored for complications. After being discharged, recipients will need to take medications to prevent rejection of the transplanted kidney and will need to follow up with their doctors regularly. Recovery can take several weeks to several months, depending on the individual.
Like all surgeries, a kidney transplant in Jaipur comes with some risks, including bleeding, infection, and complications from anesthesia. There is also a risk that the recipient’s body will reject the transplanted kidney, which can require additional treatment. Recipients will need to take immunosuppressive medications to prevent rejection, which can have side effects such as increased risk of infections and cancer.